The model of Project Management Maturity consists of five levels, although it is often found that these levels overlap and there is no clear borderline between them. They are listed below and will be detailed in the next subchapters.
Levels of Project Management Maturity
1. Intuitive Project Management
In this organization, the Project Manager is not yet recognized as a distinct professional. The initiatives are run as projects in an intuitive fashion by the most enthusiastic team member. This team member has a strong desire to succeed and self-appoints as being the one responsible for the project (this is how a Project Manager is born). This leader will use some empirical planning techniques and sometimes bypass the planning all together because everyone is looking for seeing some “real work” done and some quick wins. It is unfortunately to find that of the initiatives run in this fashion will die out, especially when they are run for an internal client, or will have difficulties in reaching the completion point. This is due because nobody takes the time to initially define in a clear fashion which should be the end result.
However, there is an advantage to this approach. This type of Project running will not provoke resistance from the hierarchical organization, because the project team and its leader will be usually located inside of the same department. Working as a project team is natural and there is no need for an organizational culture shift in order for the project to be managed.
For the organization to jump at the next level, the top management needs to recognize the Project Manager as a stand-alone profession and prepare some training for the project teams that will facilitate understanding how the projects should be run. The most frequent reactions to this jump are coming from the team members and functional managers, and will most likely sound like this: “Formal Project Management does not apply to us” or “We are doing fine without it”. On the other hand, executive managers will know this organization favors silo-decision-making: decisions being at the department level, that are good for that department but are not optimal for the organization as a whole. This organization will make interdepartmental initiatives’ fail out of lack of authority and organizational change will be impossible.
2. Acknowledged Project Management
After a few failures of the strategic initiatives and seeing the inability of the isolated departmental teams to induce change on a organizational scale, the senior management will look for a virtual team that comprises members from all departments that are targeted by the project. They will also look for a single point of contact, responsibility and information. The Project Manager title will naturally emerge, very often as an extra-hat next to the functional title. Team members will now report to multiple bosses, which will cause the first reactions of resistance, like some sort of indiscipline for the work related to the project. This makes communicating of the first successes very important: they can be about cost reduction, shorter implementation timeframe for the same quality and scope, or an increase of customer satisfaction. This is the point when senior managers should ensure there is a continuous flow of projects and look for best practices and lessons learnt being applied in the next projects running.
3. Project Management Methodology
Acknowledging Project Management as a stand-alone profession is a huge step, but projects will be run in a more or less successful fashion until some crisis strikes that requires the superior management’s attention. This is the point when top management should require documentation on how should ideally a project be run. This documentation should comprise of a standard activity list, best practices and Project Management deliverables that will make the success of the project less dependent on the Project Manager’s experience. They will also require a procedure for escalating risks and issues to the upper management levels if this is the case, which will enable corrective actions in a timely fashion. This is how a Project Management Methodology is born. The methodology can be adopted, adapted or unique, as the organization requires.
This phase comprises the greatest risk for the Maturity in Project Management pathway. It means a major shift in organizational culture and the resistance can be huge, varying from skepticism to nearly sabotage. Top management must show constant support for the Project Management concept during these times. Once this resistance is overcome, the two levels that come will be more natural and less risky. The problems that might be encountered during this phase are typical for any organizational change:
ü Conflicts caused by changes in power and authority balance – that is, the Project Manager is seen as getting too much influence and stealing power from functional managers;
ü Working horizontally and reporting to multiple bosses is not accepted by team members;
ü People might hind behind current procedures and politics in order to justify lack of initiative and extra effort;
ü Time is wasted in meetings for conflict resolution, aligning conflictual objectives and point of views and useless reporting to managers who would feel comfortable to delegate authority;
ü People might use e-mails and other forms of documentation to hide and pass on responsibility;
ü People might fight for resources;
ü People might experience a low level of motivation.
In order to advance from this stage, the management must institute the culture that the methodology is not a rigid set of papers. In mature organizations, the methodology is supported by the entire organization and individual behavior is determined by the philosophy of the methodology adopted. The methodology is not used as an excuse and all members of the organization participate with extra effort if there are problems. Achieving this kind of thinking is especially difficult in fragmented organizations, with different subcultures, which are required to convert their local thinking into a unified and cooperative approach. Culture must be nurturing, based on communication and collaboration, and is therefore important to establish the correct relationship between the Project Manager and rest of the organization:
ü Project managers and functional managers are equally responsible for the successful completion of the project. Functional managers need to keep their promises to project managers regarding resources, efforts and deadlines;
ü The Project Manager title is a recognized as a stand-alone profession. The Project Manager is no longer the functional manager or the best of the technical people.
ü Project managers negotiate with functional managers project deliverables, not people allocated. It is the functional manager’s ultimate decision to allocate the right people in the context of other business constraints;
ü Functional managers trust Project managers enough to give them authority over the team and not to intervene in the way the team is run;
ü If a functional manager can not achieve the objectives assumed, the Project Manager has the duty to persuade him to seek alternative solutions;
ü The Project Manager has the authority to make decisions regarding the project he leads. Decision-making authority and power are decentralized;
ü The Project Manager is required to inform the project sponsor and ask them for intervention if required. At the same time, the project sponsor will be permanently available to help, but it will not interfere in the management of the project and will not take decisions in project matters;
ü The Project Manager (and other team members) are encouraged to submit recommendations, alternatives and ask for allocation of resources outside the team and even from the senior management team, if this is required to solve problems beyond its authority and in the best interest of the project. These recommendations and requests should be included in an internal project progress report. What you need to include an internal report of progress has been explained in Chapter 13.3 Project progress reporting;
ü There is a process of internal progress reporting that runs periodically (chapter 13.3 Project progress reporting).
The organization has reached the maturity needed to reach the next level when it recognizes the difference between project management and operational management, and that a different set of skills is required to act as Project Manager. The focus moves on:
ü Motivate Project Managers to be more proficient;
ü Recruitment / growth of Project Managers who excel;
ü Increased productivity of the project team;
ü Increased productivity of the organization as a whole;
ü Establish project methodology as a current practice.
Achieving this level of maturity does not mean that running totally/only successful projects. It means that they will be run efficiently, thereby maximizing their chances to be successful. Indeed, by measuring number successful projects, top management should be able to see an upward trend. But project management, even at its peak performance, does not solve problems of unrealistic goals or unfavorable economic or organizational context.This author empirically considers that this phase, from its initiation until the maturity necessary to move to the next level, might take two years.
4. Project Performance Benchmarking
The organization that reached this phase will put a lot of emphasis on measuring project performance and project portfolio performance. Besides the quality of the portfolio can be measured, other aspects can be measure, such as the accuracy of the initial planning, financial forecast accuracy, risk management accuracy, customer satisfaction, quality of deliverables, etc.
This is the best time to establish a Project Management Office (PMO), or a Community of Practice in Project Management. The difference between the two is mainly about the power of the new structure, the subordination of Project Managers and the list of responsibilities of each form of organization. With a Project Management Office, Project Managers report to the Director PMO, while the Community is a virtual structure having a professional leader, but the Project Managers remain subordinate hierarchical, to the functional manager.
This is also the time when, in order to meet the need for measuring performance of project management activities, dedicated Project Management Information Systems (PMIS) are implemented in an organization.
5. Continuos improvement
Based on the understanding provided by performance measurement of the projects, the necessary corrective measures can be taken to improve the quality of project management processes. Another objective may be to simplify the methodology and minimize required documentation once the organizational culture was transformed. In this phase, the top management should encourage useful documentation project, clear and efficient communication, minimize emotional conflict, and document lessons learned and improvements to make them available for the next project.
This is when a personal development strategy is created for the Project Manager, with mapping between levels of seniority of Project Managers and relevant curriculum for them.
Also, the organization may become interested not only in comparing projects with their own objectives, but also with how other organizations are implementing Project Management, their cost structure and the improvements they make.